Foundations and Philosophy

Info-gap theory deals with epistemic uncertainty – limitations on what we do know and what we can know. The attempt to model and manage epistemic uncertainty connects to a range of questions in epistemology.

  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2006, Info-gap Decision Theory: Decisions Under Severe Uncertainty, 2nd edition, Academic Press, London.
    Section 2.2: Is ignorance probabilistic?
    Chapter 4: Value judgments.
    Section 11.1: The Ellsberg paradox.
    Section 11.2: The Allais paradox.
    Chapter 13: Implications of info-gap uncertainty.

    • Section 13.1: Holism and uncertainty.
    • Section 13.2: Language, meaning and uncertainty.
    • Section 13.3: Warrant and uncertainty.
    • Section 13.4: Credance for info-gap inference.
    • Section 13.5: Risk and uncertainty.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2017, Does a better model yield a better argument? An info-gap analysis, Proceedings of the Royal Society, A, 5 April 2017. Link to PRSA site. Summarized on here.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, Order and indeterminism: An info-gap perspective, appearing in Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice, Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon and Arthur Petersen, eds., 2014, Pickering & Chatto Publishers, London, pp.157-175. Pre-publication version.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2010, Info-Gap Economics: An Operational Introduction, Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Chapter 8: Positivism, F-twist and Robust-Satisficing.
  • Michael Smithson and Yakov Ben-Haim, 2015, Reasoned Decision Making Without Math? Adaptability and Robustness in Response to Surprise, Risk Analysis, vol.35, #10, pp.1911-1918. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2012, Doing Our Best: Optimization and the Management of Risk, Risk Analysis, 32(8): 1326-1332. Pre-print, The published version, The definitive version is at
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2012, Why risk analysis is difficult, and some thoughts on how to proceed, Risk Analysis,32(10): 1638-1646. pre-print, The published version, The definitive version is at
  • Mark A. Burgman and Helen M. Regan, 2012, Information-gap decision theory fills a gap in ecological applications, Letter to the Editors, Ecological Applications, 24(1), pp. 227-228.
  • Mark A. Burgman, 2008, Shakespeare, Wald and decision making under uncertainty, Decision Point #23, p.10. On-line version (see p.10).
  • Barry Schwartz, Yakov Ben-Haim, and Cliff Dacso, 2011, What Makes a Good Decision?  Robust Satisficing as a Normative Standard of Rational Behaviour, The Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 41(2): 209-227. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim and Francois Hemez, 2012, Robustness, Fidelity and Prediction-Looseness of Models,Proceedings of the Royal Society, A, 468: 227-244. Pre-print.
  • Yiping Li, Jianwen Chen, and Ling Feng, Dealing with uncertainty: A survey of theories and practices, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol.25, issue 11, November 2013, pages 2463-2482.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2010, Uncertainty, Probability and Robust Preferences, working paper.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2011, When is non-probabilistic robustness a good probabilistic bet? Working paper.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2014, Robust satisficing and the probability of survival, Intl. J. of System Science, 45: 3-19, appearing on-line 9 May 2012. Online preview.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2011, Optimizing and Satisficing in Quantum Mechanics: An Info-Gap Approach, working paper.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2007, Peirce, Haack and Info-gaps, pp.150-164 in Susan Haack, A Lady of Distinctions: The Philosopher Responds to Her Critics, edited by Cornelis de Waal, Prometheus Books. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2004, Uncertainty, probability and information-gaps, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 85: 249-266. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2000, Why the best engineers should study humanities, International Journal for Mechanical Engineering Education, 28: 195-200. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 2000, Robust rationality and decisions under severe uncertainty, Journal of the Franklin Institute, 337: 171-199. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 1999, Set-models of information-gap uncertainty: Axioms and an inference scheme, Journal of the Franklin Institute, 336: 1093-1117. Pre-print.
  • Yakov Ben-Haim, 1994, Convex models of uncertainty: Applications and Implications, Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy, 41:139-156. Re-print.
  • George J. Klir, 2006, Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized Information Theory, Wiley Publishers. Prof. Klir discusses possible relations between info-gap models of uncertainty and the measure-theoretic models of uncertainty in Generalized Information Theory.

Questions or comments on info-gap theory? Contact me at